Copies of the mutilated inscriptions referred to, were published by General Sir A. Cunningham in his Archaeological Survey Reports, vol. III, plates xiii-xv. Unfortunately they have been presented from 'copies' and are therefore full of errors, which are due for the most part, doubtless, to the copyist and not to the sculptor. It is not difficult, however, in most cases under consideration here, to restore the correct reading. Usually only vowel signs are omitted or misread and, here, and there, consonants closely resembling one another as va and cha, va, and dha, ga and śa, la and na are interchanged.
The formulae of the inscriptions are almost universally the same. First comes the date, then follows the name of a reverend teacher, next, the mention of the school and the subdivision of it to which he belonged. Then the persons, who dedicated the statues are named (mostly women), and who belonged to the community of the said teacher. The description of the gift forms the conclusion. The dialect of the inscriptions shows that curious mixture of Sanskṛĭt and Prâkṛĭt which is found in almost all documents of the Indo-Skythian kings, and whichas Dr. Hoernle was the first to recognise—was one of the literary languages of northern and northwestern India during the first centuries before and after the commencement of our era.
In the calculation of dates, I use the favourite starting point for the era of the Indo-Skythian kings, which unfortunately, is not certainly determined, and assume that it is identical with the Saka era of 78-1/4 A.D. The rule of these princes could not have fallen later: in my opinion it was somewhat earlier. [Footnote: What follows is from the author's later and fuller paper in Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, Bd. I, S. 170 f., but abridged.—Ed.] I give here transcripts and restorations of such inscriptions as mention Jaina schools or titles.
- The inscription which is the most important for my purpose and at the same time one of the best preserved, is Sir A. Cunningham's No. 6, plate xiii, which was found on the base of a Jaina image (Arch. Sur. Rep. vol. III, p. 31). The copy compared with a rubbing gives the following reading, (the letters within parentheses are damaged):
- Siddhaṁ saṁ 20 gramâ 1 di 10 + 5 ko(ṭi)yato gaṇato (Vâ)ṇiyato kulato V(ai)r(i)to śâkâto Śirikâto
- (bha)ttito vâchakasya Aryya-Saṅghasihasya nir(v)varttanaṁ Dattilasya.... Vi.-
- lasya ko(ṭhu)bi(ki)ya Jayavâlasya Devadâsasya Nâgadinasya cha Nâgadinâye cha (mâ)tu.
- śrâ(vi)kâye (D)i-
- (nâ)ye dânaṁ. i
- Varddhamâna pra-
The lacuna in line 2, after Dattilasya, probably contained the word duhituye or dhûtuye and part of a male name of which only the letter vi is visible. In l. 3, possibly koṭhabiniye is to be read instead of koṭhubikiye. As there is room for one more letter at the end of the line, I propose to read mâtuye. In l. 5, Dinâye would stand for Dattâyâḥ and be the genitive of a female name Dinnâ or Dattâ, which has been shortened bhâmâvat. There can be no doubt that the word śrî, or śiri, which is required, has stood before Vardhamâna. With these restorations the translation is as follows:
"Success! The year 20, summer (month) I, day 15. An image of glorious Vardhamâna, the gift of the female lay-disciple Dinâ [i. e. Dinnâ or Dattâ], the [daughter] of Attila, the wife of Vi..la, the mother of Jayavâla [Jayapâla], of Devadâsa and Nâgadina [i. e. Nâgadinna or Nâgadatta] and of Nâgadina [i.e. of Nâgadinnâ or Nâgadattâ]—(this statue being) the nirvartana [Footnote: The word nirvartana has the meaning of 'in obedience to the order', or 'in consequence of the request'. It occurs again in the Prakrit form nivatanaṁ below, in No. 10 (pl. xiv) and it has stood in No. 4, and at the end of l. 2 of No. 7, where the rubbing has nirva. It is also found in the next: Arch. Sur. Rep. vol. XX, pl. v, No. 6.] of the preacher Aryya-Saṅghasiha [i.e. Ârya-Saṅghasiṁha], out of the Koṭiya school, the Vâniya race, the Vairi branch, the Śirikâ division".
The inscription given Arch. Sur. Rep. vol. XX, plate v, No. 6 reads, according to an excellent rubbing:
- Namo Arahaṁtânain namo Siddhâna saṁ 60 [Footnote: In reading the first figure as 60, I follow Sir A. Cunningham. I have never seen the sign, in another inscription. The characters of the inscription are so archaic that this date may refer to an earlier epoch than the Indo-Skythian.] + 2
- gra 3 di 5 etâye purvâye Rârakasya Aryakakasaghastasya
- śishyâ Âtapikogahabaryasya nirvartana chatnuvarnasya saṁghasya
- yâ dinnâ paṭibhâ[bho?]ga 1 (?) | (?) Vaihikâya datti|
"Adoration to the Arhats, adoration to the Siddhas! The year 62, the summer (month) 3, the day 5; on the above date a yâ. was given to the community, which includes four classes, as an enjoyment (or one share for each) (this being) the nirvartana of Atapikogahabarya, the pupil of Arya-Kakasaghasta (Ârya-Karkaśagharshita), a native of Rârâ (Râḍhâ). The gift of Vaihikâ (or, Vaihitâ)."
- With the inscription No. 6 of the year 20, No. 4 (plate xiii) agrees; it was also found on a Jaina pedestal. With better readings from a rubbing of the first side only, I propose for the other portions, of which I have no rubbings, the following emendations,—l. 1, Vâniyato kulato, sâkhâto; l. 2, kuṭumbimye; I also note that the lacuna in line 2, 3th and 4th sides, would be filled exactly by ye śrî-Vardhamânasya pratimâ kâritâ sarvasattvâ. The former existence of the first and last seven letters may be considered certain. My restoration of the whole is,—
- (1st side) Siddhaṁ mahârâjasya Kanishkasya râjye saṁvatsare navame [Footnote: Sac. Bks. East, vol. XXII p. 292.] (2nd side).. mâsc pratha 1 divase 5 a-(3rd)[syâṁ] purvvâye Koṭiyato gaṇato Vâniya[to] (4th) [ku]lato Vairito śâkâto vâchaka-
- (1st side) [sya] [N]âganaṃdisa ni[rva]r[ta]naṁ Brah[ma] ... [dhû-(2nd)tuye] Bhaṭṭumitasa kuṭu[ṁ]bi[n]i[ye] Vikaṭâ-(3rd)[ye śrî Vardhamânasya pratimâ kâritâ sarva-(4th) satvâ]naṁ hita-
and the translation:—
"Success! During the reign of the great king Kanishka, in the ninth year, 9, in the first month, 1, of ..., on the day 5,—on the above date [an image of glorious Vardhamâna has been caused to be made] for the welfare [and happiness] of [all created beings] by Vikatâ, the house-wife of Bhaṭṭimita (Bhatṭimitra) and [daughter of] Brâhma ...—(this statue being) the nirvartana of the preacher Nâganaṁidi, out of the Koṭiya school (gaṇa), the Vâṇiya line (kula), (and) the Vairi branch (śâkhâ)."
If we now turn to the Kalpasûtra, we find that Suṭṭhiya or Susthita, the eighth successor of Vardhamâna, founded the Kauṭika or Koḍiya gaṇa, which split up into four śâkhâs and four kulas. The third of the former was the Vajrî or Vairî, and the third of the latter was the Vâṇîya or Vâṇijja. It is evident that the names of the gaṇa, kula, and śâkhâ agree with those mentioned in the two inscriptions, Koṭiya being a somewhat older form of Koḍiya. But it is interesting to note that the further subdivision of the Vairî śâkhâ—the Śirikâ bhatti (Srikâ bhakti) which inscription No. 6 mentions, is not known to the Kalpasûtra. This is a gap such as may by be expected to occur in a list handed down by oral tradition.
- The Koṭika gaṇa is again mentioned in the badly mutilated inscription No. 19, plate xv. A complete restoration is impossible.
- Saṁvalsare 90 va...sya kuṭubani. vadânasya vodhuya...
- K|oṭiyato| gaṇato |Praśna|vâha|na|kato kulato Majhamâto śâkhâto...sa nikâye bhati gâlâe thabâni...
It may, however, be inferred from the fragments of the first line that the dedication was made by a woman who was described as the wife (kuṭumbinî) of one person and as the daughter-in-law (vadhu) of another. The first part of line 2, restored as above gives—"in the congregation of ... out of the Koṭiya school, the Praśnavâhanaka line and the Majhamâ branch...." The restoration of the two names Koṭiya and Praśnavâhanaka seems to me absolutely certain, because they exactly fill the blanks in the inscription, and because the information in the Kalpasûtra (S. B. E. vol. XXII, p. 293) regarding the Madhyamâśâkhâ points in that direction. The latter work tells us that Priyagantha, the second pupil of Susthita and Supratibuddha, founded a śâkhâ, called Madhyamâ or Majhimâ.
As our inscriptions show that Professor Jacobi's explanation of the terms gaṇa, kula and śâkhâ [Footnote: S. B. E. vol. XXII, p. 288, note 2.] is correct and that the first denotes the school, the second the line of teachers, and the third a branch which separated from such a line, it follows that the śâkhâs named in the Kalpasûtra without the mention of a gaṇa and kula, must belong to the last preceding gaṇa and derive their origin from one of its kulas. Hence the Madhyamâ śâkhâ doubtless was included in the Kauṭika gaṇa, and an offshoot of one of its kulas, the fourth of which is called Praśnavâhanaka or Paṇhavâhaṇaya. The correctness of these inferences is proved by Râjaśckhara's statement regarding his spiritual descent at the end of the Prabandha kosha, which he composed in Vik. saṁ 1405. He informs us that he belonged to the Koṭika gaṇa, the Praśnavâhana kula, the Madhyamâ śâkhâ, the Harshapurîya gachha and the Maladhâri samtâna, founded by the illustrious Abhayasûri.
For the last words of l. 2 I do not dare to propose an emendation; I merely note that the gift seems to have consisted of pillars, thabâni, i. e. stambhâḥ.
- The Koṭiya gaṇa seems finally to be mentioned in pl. xiii, No. 2, where the copy of line 1, 2nd side may be corrected as,—
Siddha—sa 5 he 1 di 10 + 2 asyâ purvvâye Koṭ(iya).
- Names of an older gaṇa and of one of its kulas occur in No. 10 plate xiv, where the copy, which is faulty, may allow the following partial restoration,—-
- Sa 40 + 7 gra 2 di 20 etasyâ purvvâye Vâraṇe gaṇe Petidhamikakulavâchakasya Rohanadisya sîsasya Senasya nivatanam sâvaka-Da
- ...pashâṇavadhaya Giha..ka.bha.. prapâ [di]nâ..mâ ta...
which I translate—
"The year 47, the summer (month) 2, the day 20,—on the above date a drinking fountain was given by ..., the ... of the lay-disciple Da ... (this being) the nivatana of Sena the pupil of Rohanadi (Rohanandi) and preacher of the Petidhamika (Praitidharmika) line, in the Vâraṇa school."
Varane must be a mistake for the very similar word Chârane. The second kula of this gaṇa which, according to the Kalpasûtra (S.B.E. vol. XXII, p. 291) was founded by Śrîgupta, the fifth pupil of Ârya Suhastin, is the Prîtidharmika (p. 292). It is easy to see that a similar name is hidden in the compound Petivamikakutavâchakasya 'of the preacher of the Petivâmika line'; and an inscription excavated by Dr. Fuhrer at Mathurâ mentions the Petivâmika (kula) of the Vârana gaṇa. With the second line little can be done: if the letters prapâ are correct and form a word, one of the objects dedicated must have been a drinking fountain.
- The inscription No. 20, plate xv offers likewise slightly corrupt and mutilated names of a gaṇa, a kula and a sâkhâ, mentioned in the Kalpasûtra. In the lithographed copy lines 3-7 are hopeless and there is no rubbing to help. The word thitu 'of a daughter' in line 6, and the following ma.uya which is probably a misreading of mâtuye 'of the mother' show that this dedication also was made by a female. The last four syllables vato maho are probably the remnant of another namaskâra—namo bhagavato Mahâvîrasya. As regards the proper names, Aryya Rehiniya is an impossible form; but on comparison with the next inscription to be mentioned, it is evident that the stone must have read Aryvodchikiyâto or Aryyadehikiyâto gaṇâ[to]. [Footnote: Wiener Zeitshe. f. d. Kunde der Morgenl., Bd. II, S. 142 f.] According to the Kalpasûtra (S.B.E. vol. XXII, p. 291) Ârya-Rohaṇa was the first pupil of Ârya Suhastin and founded the Uddeha gaṇa. The latter split up into four śâkhâs and into six kulas. The name of its fourth śâkhâ, Pûrṇapatrikâ, closely resembles—especially in its consonantal elements—that of the inscription, Petaputrikâ, and I do not hesitate in correcting the latter to Ponapatrikâ which would be the equivalent of Sansk. Paurṇapatrikâ. Among the six kulas is the Parihâsaka, and considering the other agreements, I believe it probable that the mutilated name read as Puridha.ka is a misreading of Parihâka, We may emend the first two times and read as follows,—
- Siddha|m| namo arahato Mahâvir|a|sya devanâśasya | râjña Vâsudevasya saṁvatsare 90 + 8 varshamâse + divase 10 | 1 etasyâ.
- purvv|â|y|e| Aryyo-D|e|h|i|kiyâto gaṇâ|to| P|a|vi|hâsa|k|a|kula|to| P|ou|ap|a|trikât|o| śâkâto gaṇ|i|sya Aryya-Devadatta|sya| na... ...
- kihadiye prajâ
- tasya Pravarakasya dhitu Varaṇasya gatvakasya ma|t|uya Mitra(?)sa ...datta gâ
- ye..|namo bhaga|vato mah|âvîrasya|
and the translation (so far) will be,—
"Success! Adoration to the Arhat Mahâvirâ, the destroyer(?) of the gods. In the year of king Vâsudeva, 98, in the month 4 of the rainy season, on the day 11—on the above date ... of the chief of the school (gaṇin) Aryya-Devadata (Devadatta) out of the school (gaṇa) of the Aryya-Udehikîya (Ârya-Uddehikiya), out of the Parihâsaka line (kula), out of the Ponapatrikâ (Paurṇapatrikâ) branch (śâkhâ)." [Footnote: At a later date Dr. Bühler added other proofs from inscriptions of the authenticity of the Jaina tradition, in the Vienna Oriental Journal, vol. II, pp. 141-146; vol. III, pp. 233-240; vol. IV, pp. 169-173, 313-318; vol. V, pp. 175-180; and in Epigraphia Indica, vol. I pp. 371-397; vol. II, pp. 195-212, 311. The paragraphs given above are chiefly from his first paper in the Vienna Oriental Journal (vol. I, pp. 165-180), which appears to be an extended revision of the long footnote in the original paper on the Jainas, but it is here corrected in places from readings in his later papers.—J. B.]
These and many other statements in the inscriptions, about the teachers and their schools are of no small importance in themselves for the early history of the Jainas. The agreement of the above with the Kalpasûtra can best be shown by placing the statements in question against one another. The inscriptions prove the actual existence of twenty of the subdivisions mentioned in the Sthavirâvali of the Kalpasûtra. Among its eight gaṇas we can certainly trace three, possibly four—the Uddchika, Vâraṇa, Veśavâḍiya(?) and Koḍiya.
1. Koṭṭiya (Koḍiya) Gana | .———————————————————. | | Bramadâsika kula Uchchenâgarî śâkhâ Thâniya kula Vairî, Vairiyâ śâkhâ P[aṇha]vahu[ṇaya]ku[la] Majhamâ śâkhâ
The Sthavirâvalî of the Kalpasûtra (Sac. Bks. of the East, vol. XXII, p. 292) states that Susṭhita and Supratibuddha founded the—
Koṭiya or Kauṭaka Gaṇa | .————————————————————————. | | kulas śâkhâs 1. Bambhalijja 1. Uchchanâgarî 2. Vachchhalijja 2. Vijjâharî 3. Vâṇîya or Vâṇîjja 3. Vajrî 4. Panhavâhanaya 4. Majjhimáka or Praśnavâhanaka 5. Majjhîma (scholar of the two teachers. founded by Priyagantha the second)
2. Vâraṇa Gaṇa | .———————————————. | | kulas śâkhâs Petivamika Vâjanâgarî Áryya Hâṭikiya Harîtamâlakaḍhî Puśyamitrîya Aryya-Cheṭiya Kaniyasika
The Kalpasûtra states that Śrîgupta of the Hâritagotra founded the Châraṇa gaṇa, which was divided into four śâkhâs and into seven kulas:
Châraṇa-gaṇa | .——————————————-. | | kulas śâkhâs 1. Vachchhalijja Saṁkâśikâ 2. Pîdhammiya 3. Hâlijja Vajjanâgarî 4. Pûsamittijja Gavedhukâ 5. Mâlijja 6. Ârya-Cheḍaya Hâriyamâlagârî 7. Kaṇhasaha
3. Aryya-Udekiya Gaṇa | .—————————————. | | kulas | Nágabhatikiya Petaputrikâ śâkhâ. Puridha..
The Kalpasûtra says Ârya-Rohana of the Kâśyapa gotra founded the
Uddeha Gana | .————————————————————————. | | kulas śâkhâs 1. Nâgabhûya Udumbarijjiyâ 2. Somabhûta Mâsapûrikâ 3. Ullagachchha (or Ârdrakachchha?) Matipatrikâ 4. Ilatthilijja 5. Nandijja Puṇṇapattiyâ 6. Parihâsaka
4. [Veśavâdiya Gaṇa]
[Footnote: Epigraphia Indica, vol. I, pp. 382, 388.]
The Kalpasûtra:—Kâmarddhi of the Kuṇḍalagotra founded the Veśavâṭika gaṇa which was divided into four śàkhâs, and into four kulas:—
Veśavâṭika Gaṇa | .————————————————————. | | kulas śâkhâs Gaṇika Śrâvastikâ Maighika Rajjapâliyâ Kâmarddhika Antarijjiyâ Indrapuraka Khemalijjiyâ
[Footnote: For the above lists see Wiener Zeitschi. Bd. IV, S. 316 ff. and Kalpasûtra in S. B. E. vol. XXII, pp. 290 f.]
The resemblance of most of these names is so complete that no explanation is necessary.