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[A] This essay is art enlarged form of an address delivered on the occasion of the birthday of King Wilhelm II of Württemberg, on February 25, 1909.

[1] E. Schlagintweit, Indien in Wort und Bild, II, 26 f.

[2] A. Müller, Der Islam im Morgen-und Abendland, II, 300 f.

[3] From the literature on Emperor Akbar the following works deserve special mention: J. Talboys Wheeler, The History of India from the Earliest Ages. Vol. IV, Pt. I, "Mussulman Rule," London, 1876 (judges Akbar very unfairly in many places, but declares at the bottom of page 135, "The reign of Akbar is one of the most important in the history of India; it is one of the most important in the history of the world"); Mountstuart Elphinstone, History of India, the Hindu and Mahometan Periods, with notes and additions by E.B. Cowell, 9th ed., London, 1905; G.B. Malleson, Akbar and the Rise of the Mughal Empire, Oxford, 1890 (in W.W. Hunter's Rulers of India); A. Müller, Der Islam im Morgen-und Abendland, Vol. II, Berlin, 1887; but especially Count F.A. von Noer, Kaiser Akbar, ein Versuch über die Geschichte Indiens im sechzehnten Jahrhundert, Vol. I, Leyden, 1880; Vol. II, revised from the author's manuscript by Dr. Gustav von Buchwald, Leyden, 1885. In the preface to this work the original sources are listed and described; compare also M. Elphinstone, pp. 536, 537, note 45.

[4] A. Müller, II, 416.

[B] Noer, II as frontispiece (comp. also pp. 327, 328); A. Müller, II, 417.

[5] Noer, I, 131.

[6] Noer, I, 141.

[7] J.T. Wheeler, IV, I, 139, 140; Noer, I, 143, 144.

[8] J.T. Wheeler, IV, I, 180.

[9] Noer, II, 8, 390, 423.

[10] For the following compare Noer I, 391 ff.; M. Elphinstone, 529 ff.; G.B. Malleson, 172 ff., 185 ff.

[11] Noer, II, 6, 7; G.B. Malleson, 174, 175.

[12] J.T. Wheeler, IV, I, 173; Noer, I, 438 n.

[13] Noer, II, 378.

[14] Noer, I, 429. The second invention, however, is questioned by Buchwald.

[15] Noer, I, 439.

[16] Noer, I, 224-226

[17] Badâoni in Noer, II, 320.

[18] Noer, II, 317, 318.

[19] Ibid. 376, 317.

[20] J.T. Wheeler, IV, I, 173; M. Elphinstone, 526; G.B. Malleson, 170.

[21] Noer, II, 355-

[22] J.T. Wheeler, IV, I, 169, following the old English geographer Samuel Purchas.

[23] Abul Fazl in Noer, I, 511.

[24] M. Elphinstone, 519

[25] J.T. Wheeler, IV, I, 168.

[26] Loc. cit., 169.

[27] Noer, I, 432, 433.

[28] A. Müller, II, 386.

[29] J.T. Wheeler, IV, I, 174

[30] J.T. Wheeler, loc. cit., 141; Noer, I, 193; II, 324, 326

[31] A. Müller, II, 418

[32] Noer, I, 262

[33] Noer, I, 259.

[34] J.T. Wheeler, IV, I, 156.

[35] J.T. Wheeler, IV, I, 174; Noer, I, 511, 512. A familiar classical parallel to this incident is the experiment recorded by Herodotus (II, 2) which the Egyptian king Psammetich is said to have performed with two infants. It is related that after being shut up in a goat's stable for two years separated from all human intercourse these children repeatedly cried out the alleged Phrygian word ße??? [Greek: bekhos], "bread," which in reality was probably simply an imitation of the bleating of the goats. Compare Edward B. Tyler, Researches into the Early History of Mankind. 2nd edition, (London, 1870), page 81: "It is a very trite remark that there is nothing absolutely incredible in the story and that Bek, bek is a good imitative word for bleating as in ß?????µa?, µ????µa? [Greek: blêchhaomai, mêkhaomai,], blöken, meckern, etc." Farther on we find the account of a similar attempt made by James IV of Scotland as well as the literature with regard to other historical and legendary precedents of this sort in both Orient and Occident.

[36] Noer, II, 324, 325. Beards which the Koran commanded to be worn Akbar even refused to allow in his presence. M. Elphinstone, 525; G.B. Malleson, 177.

[37] J.T. Wheeler, IV, I,162; Noer, I, 481.

[38] J.T. Wheeler, IV, I, 165, note, 47; M. Elphinstone, 523, note 8; G.B. Malleson, 162.

[39] In Noer, I, 485.

[40] A. Müller, II, 420 n.

[41] Noer, II, 314, 355.

[42] In Noer, II, 409.

[43] In Noer, II, 347, 348.

[44] M. Elphinstone, 524.

[45] Noer, I, 503.

[46] Noer, I, 490 n.

[47] Noer, II, 564, 572.