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Chapter 6: The Meeting with Ramananda Ray

Thus did the Master wend His way. On reaching the temple of the Nrisingha (Man-lion) Incarnation at Jiyad,[1] He made His bow and rapturously sang and danced long in honour of the god, saying, "Glory to Nrisingha! Glory to Nrisingha! Prahlad's Lord! Glory to you, O Lotus-lipped, O Bee on the Lotus!" [The Bhagabat, VII. ix. I. verse quoted in Shridhar Goswami's commentary].

Many such verses did the Master recite as He prayed to the god. The serving priest presented Him with the god's garland. As before, a Brahman invited and fed the Master, who passed the night there. Next morning He took up His journey again, His emotion of faith making Him heedless of outer things day and night. As before, He made the people turn Vaishnav, and after a long time reached the bank of the Godavari, which reminded Him of the Jamuna, while the wood on the bank suggested Brindaban. After dancing in the wood, He crossed the river and bathed there. Sitting at the water's edge away from the ghat, the Master chanted Krishna's name. Just then arrived Ramananda Ray in a litter, attended by Jiyad musicians and many Vaidik Brahmans, to bathe. He bathed and performed the rites duly. The Master at first sight knew him for Ramananda Ray, and longed to meet him, but sat checking His eagerness. Ramananda Ray came up to Him on seeing a sannyasi, and wondered as he gazed on His person beaming like a hundred suns, His robe of the hue of the morning sun, His large vigorous frame, His eyes like the lotus. As he prostrated himself before the Master, the latter stood up and said, "Rise, and chant Krishna's name", and though thirsting with desire to embrace him, He asked, "Art thou Ramananda Ray?" The man answered, "Yes, I am that slave, a vile Shudra." Passionately did the Master embrace him, and both tumbled down on the ground in excess of devo tion, senseless with love, inert or perspiring, weeping, trembling, with hair standing on end, pale of hue, and lisping 'Krishna! Krishna!'

The Vaidik Brahmans marvelled as they beheld it, and inly thought, "This sannyasi, we see, is powerful like Brahma. Why does he weep after embracing a Shudra? This noble is a grave and learned man; why then has he been maddened by the touch of the sannyasi?" The Master checked Himself on seeing strangers. The two composed themselves and sat down there. Smilingly the Master began, "Sarvabhauma Bhattacharya has spoken to me of your merits, and pressed me to see you. For that purpose have I come here. It is well that I have met you so easily." The Ray replied, "Sarvabhauma knows me for his servant, and is ever on the watch to do me good even indirectly. Through his grace have I met you, and to-day my life has become a success. That you have graciously touched this untouchable Shudra is the proof of your mercy and that of Sarvabhauma. Thou art the God Narayan himself, and I a royal servant, a worldling, a wretch! In touching me thou didst not feel repulsion or fear of the Vedas! The Vedas forbid you even to look at me. Thy mercy leads thee to perform a forbidden act. Thou art God indeed; who can know thy ways? For delivering me hast thou come here, O Fountain of Mercy! O Saviour of the Fallen! Such is the habit of the great, to sate a wretch he goes out of his way to pay him a visit! Vide the Bhagabat, X. viii. 2, Nanda's words to Garga:

'Master, that saints travel from their own hermitages is only for doing [spiritual] good to those householders who cannot leave their houses; there is no other purpose in it.'

"The thousand men, Brahmans and others, in my train, have had their hearts melted by Thy sight. All of them are shouting Krishna! Hari! All are tremulous, all are weeping in joy. Verily you have every characteristic, internal and external, of God. No mortal can possess such supernatural power!"

The Master replied, "You are the greatest of devotees. It is your sight that has softened the hearts of all. Why impute it to another? I am only a sannyasi holding the theory of illusion (maya-vad), but even I have been steeped in the love of Krishna by your touch. Knowing that my heart is hard to reform, Sarvabhauma had asked me to meet you."

Thus did the two praise each other, each delighted to see the other. Then a Vaishnav Vaidik Brahman bowed and invited the Master, who accepted the invitation knowing him to be a Vaishnav. Smiling, the Master said to Ramananda, "I wish to hear the discourse of Krishna from your lips. I hope I shall see you again." The Ray replied, "You have come here to save this sinner. But my wicked heart has not been cleansed by the mere sight of you. Stay for 5 or 7 days to purge my hard heart of its sins." Ramananda Ray bowed and went away, though loth to part, while the Master went to the Brahman's house to dine. Eagerly did the two look for their meeting in the evening. As the Master was sitting after his sunset bath, the Ray arrived with a servant. He bowed to the Master, who embraced him. The two conversed in a retired spot. The Master bade him recite the verses indicating the means of gaming devotion (sadhya). The Ray replied, "We acquire faith in Vishnu by doing the duties of our rank. As the Vishnu Puran, III. viii. 8, says, 'Worship the Supreme Being Vishnu by doing the prescribed duties of your caste. There is no other means of pleasing Him.'" The Master objected, "This is only an external means. Mention one more advanced." The Ray replied, "The highest means of acquiring devotion is to resign to Krishna the fruits of our acts, as the Gita, IX. 27, puts it:

'O Son of Kunti, consign to me whatever you do, be it eating, performing the horn ceremony, alms-giving, or austerity.'"

The Master again objected, "This too is external. Go deeper into the subject." The Ray answered, "The highest means of devotion is abandoning one's caste-duties [out of love for Krishna], as the Lord says to Uddhav in the Bhagabat, XI. xi. 32:

'He too is the highest of holy men, who knowing well the gain and loss of such a course, worships me by renouncing the Vedic rites and ceremonies of his caste, though these too were ordained by me.'

"Also, as the Gita, xvvi. 66, has it:

'Take refuge in ME alone, giving up all religions. Grieve not; I will deliver thee from all sins.'

But to this the Master objected, "This too is external. Tell me of a still higher means." The Ray answered, "Faith based on knowledge is the highest means of devotion. As Shri Krishna says to Arjun in the Gita, xviii. 54:

'The peaceful soul that dwells on Brahma, and feels not sorrow or desire, but is the same in all states, gains my supreme bhakti.'"

Again the Master objected as before. The Ray answered, "Faith independent of knowledge is the highest instrument of devotion. Witness Brahma's words to God in the Bhagabat, X. xiv. 3:

'Lord, hard as Thou art to be won in the Universe, yet they realize Thee who reject the quest of theological knowledge but stay at home, listening to Thy story as told by holy men and accepting it with all their mind, body and soul.'"

The Master remarked, "It is so; but mention a higher still." The Ray said, "The highest devotion is love) (prem-bhakti). Witness the following verses of Ramananda Ray quoted in the Padyavali, cantos xi and xii respectively:

'We relish food and drink only so long as we have hunger and thirst. Similarly, the devotee delights not in worshipping his heart's darling with elaborate Preparations, but in love alone.'

'Get a heart inspired with love of Krishna, if ever you can get it. Its only price is greed,--a price which we cannot acquire even by the accumulated merits of ten millions of births.'"

The Master remarked as before. The Ray replied, "The love of a servant is the highest devotion. Witness the speech of Durvasha in the Bhagabat, IX. v. 11:--

'What is too hard for the Lord's servants to gain, as the very listening to His name purifies all creatures?'"

The Master remarked, "It is so, but give a still deeper cause." The Ray replied, "Love as for a comrade is the highest form of devotion. Witness Shukdev's words to Parikshit, in the Bhagabat, X. xii. 10:

'God is known to the good as the consciousness of divine pleasure (brahma-sukhanubhuti), and to His servants as the Supreme Object of Adoration. That such a God played with the deluded cow-boys in the garb of a human child, was due to their excessive merit.'"

The Master said, "This too is good. Mention a higher one still." The Ray went on, "The highest devotion is love as for a child. Witness the following verses of the Bhagabat:

'Shukdev! what high-class meritorious deeds did Nanda perform, and what did the blessed Yashoda do that she suckled the Divine Being?" (X. viii. 36).

'The bliss that the cowherd's wife Yashoda derived from her Saviour-son was never gained by Brahma, or Shiva, or even by Lakshmi though clasped to His person.' (X. ix. 15.)

The Master said, "This is good, no doubt. But mention a higher still." The Ray replied, "Passion as for a lover is the highest form of devotion. Witness the following verses of the Bhagabat:

'Verily the favour shown by the Supreme Being to the fair ones of Brindaban, when in the rasa sport He clasped them round the neck with His arms, was not enjoyed even by Lakshmi, who is held to His heart, nor by the heavenly nymphs though blooming and odorous like the lotus; not to speak of other women.' (X. xlvii. 53)

The Ray continued, "Many are the means of attaining to Krishna, and there are degrees of such attainment. By whichever of these means a man is inspired, it appears as the highest to him. It is only when we judge from a position of detachment that we can discriminate them as good, better, and best.

"The preceding five passions are arranged in the order of their upward development. With the increase of quality there is an increase of deliciousness at each step. The shanta passion attains its maturity in the dasya, the dasya in the sakhya, the sakhya in the batsalya, and all of these four are concentrated in the madhura, just as the properties of the four elements, viz., sky, air, &c. increase in an advancing order and are all united in the fifth element, the Earth. The full attainment of Krishna results from this last passion of conjugal love (prema). The Bhagabat asserts that Krishna is a slave to devotion in the form of prema.

"Krishna's purpose remains constant in all ages: He makes a return to our adoration in exactly the same form in which we offer it. But He cannot reciprocate this prem adoration to the full, and so remains our debtor, as the Bhagabat affirms. (X. xxxii. 21, Krishna's words to the milk-maids).

"True, Krishna is the highest type of beauty and grace, but even His charm increases when He is in the company of the Lady of Braja. Witness the Bhagabat, X. xxxiii. 6:

'As the beauty of the emerald is set off when it is placed amidst golden-coloured gems, so shines Krishna when girt round by the beaming girls of Brindaban.'"

The Master remarked, "This is indeed the extreme point among the means of devotion. Kindly tell me if there is anything beyond it!" The Ray said, "I did not know before that the earth contained any man who would inquire beyond this point! Of all kinds of conjugal passion Radha's love is celebrated in all our Scriptures as the highest".

The Master said, "Speak on! I delight to hear. A wondrous stream of nectar is flowing out of your lips. Show how Krishna abducted Radha for fear of interruption by the other cow-herd girls; because a love that extends to others than the beloved is not deep enough. If you can show that for Radha's sake Krishna openly forsook the other Gopis, then I shall know that he passionately loved her." The Ray replied, "Hear, then, of this glorious power of love. The three worlds cannot match Radha's love. Krishna broke away from the circle of the rasa dance of the Gopis and wandered through the woods mourning for Radha. Witness the Git-Govinda, canto III. verses 2 and i, and the Ujjwala-Nilmani, verse 43.

Radha left the dance in anger and wounded pride. Krishna grew restless as he lost her. His whole heart was set on the rasa dance, and Radha was the chain that bound his heart to it. In her absence, the rasa dance palled on his taste. So he left the circle of dancers to seek her out. As he roamed hither and thither, without finding her, he grieved, stricken with Cupid's dart. A thousand million Gopis could not satiate his passion. From this you may infer Radha's merit!"

The Master said, "I have now learnt those spiritual mysteries for which I came to you. Now have I learnt how to ascertain the various methods of adoration. But I long to hear more: tell me of Krishna's form, of Radha's form, what mystery is rasa, what is the essence of love (prem). Be kind and tell me these mysteries; none but you can expound them." The Ray answered, "I know nothing of these things, but only utter what you inspire me with, as the parrot repeats what it has learnt by rote. You are God incarnate; who can comprehend your artifice? You send your message to my heart, and make my tongue deliver it, without my knowing whether I am speaking well or ill!"

The Master answered, "I am merely a sannyasi, a slave to the theory of illusion and ignorant of the mysteries of faith (bhakti). The society of Sarvabhauma has purified my mind, and I asked him to speak on devotion to Krishna. But he replied that he knew not Krishna's lore, and referred me to you as a master of it. So I came to you, on hearing of your reputation, and yet you praise me because I am a sannyasi! Be he a Brahman, be he a hermit, be he even a Shudra, if he knows Krishna's mysteries, he is a guru. Cheat me not of such knowledge for my being a sannyasi. Fill my mind by holding forth on the mysteries of Radha and Krishna."

The Ray was a great devotee and adorer of Vishnu, and his mind was proof against Krishna's illusion. But he yielded to the Master's pressing, and his will was shaken. So he said, "I am a dancer and you are the manager of the theatre; I dance as you make me. My tongue is merely a harp, and you the musician who plays on it. I utter whatever you think of in your mind.

"Krishna is the Highest God, the Perfect Being Himself, the source of all Incarnations, the chief of all causes. He is the source of the eternal Heaven, the eternal Incarnation, the eternal Universe. His body is composed of sat, chit and ananda; He is the Son of Mathura's lord, full of all wealth, all power, all ras. Vide the Brahma Samhita V. i.

At Brindaban He appeared as the supernatural youthful Cupid, at whose adoration the formula recited is Love, the offering presented is the seed of Love. There He drew all hearts of men and women, of the animate and the inanimate. He was Cupid's self, the conqueror of hearts. Witness the Bhagabat, X. xxxii. 2.

"He ravished the hearts of Incarnations like Lakshmi's husband, [Vide the Bhagabat, X. lxxxix. 32]; He drew to Himself women like Lakshmi [Vide the Bhagabat, X. xvi. 32.]

"His own beauty charmed His own heart, and He wished to embrace Himself [Vide the Lalita-Madhav, Act viii. verse 28.]

"Such in brief is Krishna's form. Now let me tell you a little of Radha's self. Krishna's powers are infinite, but three of them are the chief, viz., the chit power, the illusion power (maya), and the preservation power (jiba). These three I call the internal, the external, and the marginal (or adjacent). The highest is the internal swarup power. Witness the Vishnu Puran, VI. vii. 60.

"Krishna's self is composed of sat, chit and ananda. Therefore His swarup power must be of three kinds: in the ananda portion it is hladini, in the sat portion it is sandhini, in the chit portion it is sambita. Witness the Vishnu Puran, I. xii. 48:

"What delights Krishna is named the Ahladini power, by which He enjoys delight. Krishna is Himself delight, and yet He tastes delight. Hladini has been created to give enjoyment to the faithful. The essence of hladini is named prem (love). The story of prem is filled with the emotions of ananda and chit. The supreme emotion (mahabhaba), is the quintessence of prem. The lady Radha is the personation of that supreme emotion. [Vide the Brahma Samhita, V. 33]"

* * * * *

The Master spoke, "This is the limit of the thing adored. Through your grace I have learnt it of a verity. None can gain the Adorable without adoration. Tell me kindly the way to gain Him."

The Ray answered, "I speak as you make me, without my knowing what I say. Where in all the three worlds can we find the constant man who cannot be shaken by your illusive play? You are speaking through my mouth; yet you are my listener! Hear, then, the deep mystery of adoration. The play of Radha with Krishna is extremely deep, and cannot be learnt from the dasya, batsalya and other moods. The sakhis (female associates) alone are qualified for it; from them has this play (lila) spread. This play cannot be kept up without sakhis; they alone relish this lila in full. Sakhis alone have a right to this lila, i.e., those who adore Krishna in the spirit of His sakhis. Such votaries can practise devotion in the form of attending on Krishna and Radha in their secret bower. There is no other means of mastering this form of devotion. Witness the Git-Govinda, x. 17:

'What man versed in the deepest mystery (ras) will not take refuge at the feet of the sakhis, the personations of the chief power, without whose help Radha and Krishna's pleasure-force and pleasure-manifestation, though self-expressive, cannot for a moment attain to fulness of development?'"

"The character of the sakhis baffles description. A sakhi does not long to play with Krishna all by herself; but she feels a keener delight in contriving Krishna's dalliance with Radha. Radha is verily the Wishing creeper (Kalpalata) of the love of Krishna, and the sakhis are the leaves, flowers, and shoots of this creeper! If the nectar of dalliance with Krishna waters the creeper, the leaves, &c. delight in it ten million times more than if they themselves had been watered! Vide the Git-Govinda, x. 16.

"The sakhis do not wish for Krishna's embrace, but they exert themselves to make Krishna embrace Radha. For this purpose they send Krishna to her under a thousand pretexts. Thereby they gain a pleasure ten million times sweeter than that of selfish enjoyment. The unselfish devotion of these towards each other strengthens the deliciousness (ras), and the sight of such unselfish love delights Krishna. The love felt by the Gopis is not truly earthly lust; for the sake of analogy we call it lust (kam).

"Earthly lust seeks sensual gratification for one's own self. The passion of the Gopis, on the other hand, seeks Krishna's enjoyment, abandoning all idea of self. They hanker not for their own pleasure, but if they embrace Krishna it is only to please Him.

"He whose heart is lured by the nectar of the Gopi's passion, adores Krishna abandoning Vedic worship. That man wins in Brindaban the Darling of Braja's lord, who adores Him by following the path of passionate love (rag). He who adores Krishna in the spirit of any of the people of Braja [contemporaneous with Krishna], is born at Braja in his next birth in the form of that person whose passion he imitated, and thus gains Krishna. This is proved by the Upanishads and the Shrutis. Witness the Bhagabat, X. lxxxvii. 19.

"In that verse the term samadrisha indicates adoration in that spirit, the term samah speaks of the acquisition by the gods of the persons of the Gopis, anghri padma sudha means the delight of Krishna's society. At Braja you will not gain Krishna by following the path of prescribed ceremonies. Vide the Bhagabat, X. ix. 16:

'Ascetics proud of their conquest of the flesh, and scholars centred in themselves, cannot gain the Supreme Lord so easily as His devotees (bhaktas) can.'

"Therefore, having taken on ourselves the attitude of the Gopis, we daily meditate on Krishna's dalliance with Radha. In the siddhi body we meditate and serve it, and in the next birth we gain Radha-Krishna's feet by being born as sakhis. You cannot gain Krishna, however much you adore Him, if you only meditate on Him as a divinity and not serve Him as a Gopi. See, how Lakshmi adored Him, but could not gain Him in Braja. Vide the Bhagabat, X. xlvii. 3."

On hearing all this the Master embraced him, and the two wept holding each other by the neck. Thus did they pass the night in transports of devotion, and at dawn parted, each to his own work. When taking leave, Ramananda Ray clasped the Master's feet and begged him, "You have come here out of pity for me. Stay here therefore for some ten days to reform my sinful heart. None but you can deliver mankind; none else can impart love for Krishna."

The Master answered, "I came here on hearing of your merits, to purify my own mind by listening to your discourses on Krishna. You are indeed worthy of your reputation. You are the limit of human knowledge as regards the mystery of the love of Krishna and Radha. What of ten days? So long as I live, I cannot part with you. Let us two dwell together at Puri, passing our days happily in talk about Krishna." So they parted. In the evening the Ray came again. The two sat together in seclusion and held a delightful dialogue, the Master asking and Ramananda answering throughout the night.

The Master asked, "Which science is the chief of sciences?" The Ray answered, "There is no [true] science except devotion to Krishna." "What is the greatest glory in a creature?" "The fame of being a devotee of Krishna's love." "What wealth is estimable among human possessions?" "He is wealthy indeed who loves Radha and Krishna." "What is the heaviest of sorrows?" "There is no sorrow other than lack of devotion to Krishna." "Whom should we consider as truly liberated?" "He is the foremost of the emancipated who loves Krishna." "What song among all songs is peculiarly own to creatures?" "That ditty which speaks of the amorous sports of Krishna and Radha." "What is the best of right courses?" "There is no right course except the society of Krishna's devotees." "Whom does creation ceaselessly remember?" "The name, virtues, and exploits of Krishna are the chief things to be remembered." "What is the proper subject of meditation for mankind?" "The lotus-feet of Radha and Krishna are the chief object of meditation." "Where ought a man to live abandoning all else?" "Brindaban, the land of Braja, where the rasa play was performed." "What is the best thing for a creature to hear?" "The love-dalliance of Radha and Krishna is a potent medicine to the ear." "What is the chief object of worship?" "The highest objects of adoration are the coupled names Radha-Krishna." "What are the respective destinations of those who desire liberation and devotion?" "One gets an immovable body, the other a celestial person. The foolish crow pecks at the ash-fruit (nimba), while the connoisseur cuckoo feeds on the mango-blossom of love. The luckless scholar tastes arid theological knowledge, while the lucky [devotee] drinks the nectar of Krishna's love."

Thus did the two while away the night in talking of Krishna, dancing, singing, and weeping. At dawn they returned, each to his own duties.

Next evening the Ray came again, and after discoursing on Krishna in a loving communion for some time, he clasped the Master's feet and implored Him, "The mysteries of Krishna, Radha, love, rasa, and lila, are diverse. But you have made them all clear to my heart. It has been as if Narayan taught the Vedas to Brahma. Such are the ways of the Searcher of Hearts; He does not outwardly tell us of a thing, but reveals it to our hearts. Vide the Bhagabat, I. i. I.

"There is one doubt still in my heart. Be good enough to resolve it. When I first saw you, you looked like a sannyasi; but now I behold in you Krishna, the cowherd!

"Lo, there stands before you a golden idol, the golden hue of which envelopes all your body. That reveals the flute held to your lips and your lotus-eyes glancing with many emotions! I marvel as I behold you in this form. Tell me truly the cause of it." The Master replied, "Deep is your love for Krishna. Know this to be the effect of love that when the true devotee gazes on any object, animate or inanimate, Krishna is manifested to him in that object. The object gazed at may be inanimate or animate, but he sees not its natural form; his adored deity appears in everything. Vide the Bhagabat, XI. ii. 43, Hari's words to Janak:--

'He is the highest of devotees who beholds in every creature the God of his adoration, and all creation in the spirit of God.'

"Also, the Bhagabat, X. xxxv. 5, the speech of the Gopis to Krishna:

'Then the fruit and flower laden branches of plants and creepers felt as it were within themselves the God who was manifesting Himself, and with their limbs thrilling with delight began to shed drops of honey.'

"Deep is your love for Radha and Krishna; hence you behold Them in everything." The Ray objected, "Master, leave thou thy tricks. Conceal not thy true form from me. Having taken on thyself the emotion and beauty of Radhika, thou hast become incarnate in order to taste thy own delight. Thy secret object is the enjoyment of love; incidentally thou hast filled the universe with love. Thou hast come of thy own accord to deliver me. And now thou deludest me! What sort of conduct is this?"

Then the Master smiled and manifested His true form in which were blended Krishna, the Prince of delight (ras) and God, the Supreme Emotion. In rapture Ramananda fainted and rolled on the ground. The Master touched his arm and brought him back to his senses. Then the Ray beheld the Master looking like a sannyasi; but the latter embraced him and soothed him thus, "Who else than you can behold this form? You know fully my essence and mysterious exploits (lila); hence have I shown you this form. My body is not of a fair complexion, but this complexion is due to contact with Radha's body. She touches none except the Prince of the Cowherds. I make my own heart imagine her emotions, and thus I taste the delicious sweetness of Krishna. My acts are not hidden from you. Even if I were to conceal any, you would know it by the compelling force of your love. Keep this matter a secret from the public, lest people should laugh at my endeavours as those of a mad man. I am a mad man, and so are you; we two are a match!"

Thus did the Master spend ten days happily in sweet discourse about Krishna with Ramananda Ray. Much did He discuss the secret pleasure-sport of Brindaban, but could not come to the end of the subject. If a man discovers a mine with copper, bronze, silver, gold, gem, and the wishing stone deposited in successive layers, he comes upon richer and richer things as he goes on digging. Similarly did the Master question Rama Ray and get his answer.

Next day He took leave of the Ray and ordered him, "Give up your earthly concerns and go to Puri, where I shall soon return after finishing my pilgrimage. There we shall live together passing our days happily in talking about Krishna."

So saying He sent Ramananda home with an embrace, and then lay down to sleep. At dawn the Master saw a Hanuman (monkey), bowed to it, and set out. All classes of people at Vidya-pur, on meeting with the Master, quitted their own faiths and turned Vaishnav. Ramananda was distracted by the absence of the Master and ever meditated on Him, utterly disregarding all his own affairs.

Chaitanya's character is by nature like thickened milk, Ramananda's character is sugar added to it, and the dalliance of Radha and Krishna is like camphor thrown into this compound, which only the fortunate can taste. He who once drinks it in through his ears, can never leave it for its deliciousness. All spiritual truths are learnt if you hear it; it creates faith and love in Radha-Krishna's feet.

Know the hidden truth of Chaitanya from this episode. Attend to it with faith; do not reason. This supernatural deed is deeply mysterious. You can realize it if you believe, but reasoning will only set it afar off. This precious thing is for them only whose sole riches are the feet of Shri Chaitanya, Nityananda, and Adwaita! I have celebrated the Meeting with Ramananda on the basis of Damodar Swarup's Diary (Karcha). [Text, canto 8.]

[1] Evidently Simhachalam, a hill five miles north of Vizagapatam, containing a temple to Narasimha. This is the most famous, richest and best sculptured shrine in Vizagapatam. An inscription shows that a queen of Gonka III. covered the image with gold. Architecturally the temple apparently deserves high praise. (Vizagapatam Gazetteer, 323-325, 28-29.)